The OASYS suite and its highly effective integration options are used to implement a ray-tracing algorithm to precisely calculate the thermal load in any element of an undulator-based synchrotron beamline. That is achieved by sampling and changing the SRW supply of a given power right into a Shadow supply and utilizing the latter code to ray hint the complete beamline. The accuracy of the algorithm is proved by reconstructing the complete undulator radiation distribution via an aperture and evaluating the end result with direct calculaton of the whole energy utilizing SRW.
The algorithm is especially suited to research circumstances with complicated beamline layouts and optical components, equivalent to crystals, multilayers, and compound refractive lenses. Examples of its use to calculate the ability load on components of two of the function beamlines on the Superior Photon Supply Improve Challenge and a comparability of the outcomes with analytical calculations are introduced.
Beamline B21: high-throughput small-angle X-ray scattering at Diamond Mild Supply
B21 is a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beamline with a bending magnet supply within the three GeV storage ring on the Diamond Mild Supply Ltd synchrotron within the UK. The beamline makes use of a double multi-layer monochromator and a toroidal focusing optic to ship 2 × 1012 photons per second to a 34 × 40 µm (FWHM) focal spot on the in-vacuum Eiger 4M (Dectris) detector.
A high-performance liquid chromatography system and a liquid-handling robotic make it doable to load answer samples right into a temperature-controlled in-vacuum pattern cell with a excessive degree of automation. Alternatively, a variety of viscous or stable supplies could also be loaded manually utilizing a variety of customized pattern cells. A default scattering vector vary from 0.0026 to 0.34 Å-1 and low instrument background make B21 handy for measuring a variety of organic macromolecules. The beamline has run a full person programme since 2013.
BioMAX – the primary macromolecular crystallography beamline at MAX IV Laboratory
BioMAX is the primary macromolecular crystallography beamline on the MAX IV Laboratory three GeV storage ring, which is the primary operational multi-bend achromat storage ring. Because of the low-emittance storage ring, BioMAX has a parallel, high-intensity X-ray beam, even when centered all the way down to 20 µm × 5 µm utilizing the bendable focusing mirrors.
The beam is tunable within the power vary 5-25 keV utilizing the in-vacuum undulator and the horizontally deflecting double-crystal monochromator. BioMAX is supplied with an MD3 diffractometer, an ISARA high-capacity pattern changer and an EIGER 16M hybrid pixel detector. Information assortment at BioMAX is managed utilizing the newly developed MXCuBE3 graphical person interface, and pattern monitoring is dealt with by ISPyB. The computing infrastructure consists of knowledge storage and processing each at MAX IV and the Lund College supercomputing middle LUNARC.
With state-of-the-art instrumentation, a excessive diploma of automation, a user-friendly management system interface and distant operation, BioMAX offers a superb facility for many macromolecular crystallography experiments. Serial crystallography utilizing both a high-viscosity extruder injector or the MD3 as a fixed-target scanner is already applied. The serial crystallography actions at MAX IV Laboratory shall be additional developed on the microfocus beamline MicroMAX, when it comes into operation in 2022. MicroMAX may have a 1 µm × 1 µm beam focus and a flux as much as 1015 photons s-1 with fundamental functions in serial crystallography, room-temperature construction determinations and time-resolved experiments.
The versatile X-ray beamline of the Munich Compact Mild Supply: design, instrumentation and functions
Inverse Compton scattering offers means to generate low-divergence partially coherent quasi-monochromatic, i.e. synchrotron-like, X-ray radiation on a laboratory scale. This allows the switch of synchrotron methods into college or industrial environments. Right here, the Munich Compact Mild Supply is introduced, which is such a compact synchrotron radiation facility primarily based on an inverse Compton X-ray supply (ICS). The current enhancements of the ICS are reported first after which the assorted experimental methods that are most suited to the ICS put in on the Technical College of Munich are reviewed.
For the latter, a multipurpose X-ray software beamline with two end-stations was designed. The beamline’s design and geometry are introduced intimately together with the totally different set-ups in addition to the out there detector choices. Utility examples of the lessons of experiments that may be carried out are summarized afterwards. Amongst them are dynamic in vivo respiratory imaging, propagation-based phase-contrast imaging, grating-based phase-contrast imaging, X-ray microtomography, Okay-edge subtraction imaging and X-ray spectroscopy. Lastly, plans to improve the beamline with a view to improve its capabilities are mentioned.
Ambient-pressure endstation of the Versatile Comfortable X-ray (VerSoX) beamline at Diamond Mild Supply
The ambient-pressure endstation and branchline of the Versatile Comfortable X-ray (VerSoX) beamline B07 at Diamond Mild Supply serves a really various person group learning heterogeneous catalysts, prescription drugs and biomaterials beneath real looking circumstances, liquids and ices, and novel digital, photonic and battery supplies. The instrument facilitates research of the near-surface chemical composition, digital and geometric construction of a wide range of samples utilizing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy within the photon power vary from 170 eV to 2800 eV.
The beamline offers a resolving energy hν/Δ(hν) > 5000 at a photon flux > 1010 photons s-1 over most of its power vary. By working the optical components in a low-pressure oxygen ambiance, carbon contamination might be virtually fully eradicated, which makes the beamline notably appropriate for carbon Okay-edge NEXAFS. The endstation might be operated at pressures as much as 100 mbar, whereby XPS might be routinely carried out as much as 30 mbar.
A choice of typical knowledge demonstrates the aptitude of the instrument to analyse particulars of the floor composition of stable samples beneath ambient-pressure circumstances utilizing XPS and NEXAFS. As well as, it gives a handy manner of analysing the fuel part via X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Brief XPS spectra might be measured at a time scale of tens of seconds. The shortest knowledge acquisition occasions for NEXAFS are round 0.5 s per knowledge level.